As it was with those in favor of the proposed constitution, there were a number of writers who were opposed to its ratification. Although not as organized as the proponents of the constitution, a number of these writers in disparate portions of the new states made several significant points which, though they did not carry the day in the constitutional ratification debates, did raise important issues for the new American republic. Some of the issues raised in these papers resulted in the adoption of the Bill of Rights, and have impacted some decisions of the United States Supreme Court on important constitutional questions.


When you read through a few of the Anti-federalist Papers, you will see that many of their arguments have come to fruition, such as Anti-federalist number 7 predicting a civil war.   Seeing what is happening today, I have come to think that maybe the Anti-federalists were the prophets of their day and that their arguments should have been given a little more credence to stemming the over arching federal government that we have today.


Anti-federalist - 01:

General Introduction: A Dangerous Plan of Benefit Only to The "Aristocratick Combination"

Anti-federalist - 02:

We Have Been Told of Phantoms

Anti-federalist - 03:

New Constitution Creates a National Government; Will Not Abate Foreign Influence; Dangers of Civil War And Despotism

Anti-federalist - 04:

Foreign Wars, Civil Wars, and Indian Wars -- Three Bugbears

Anti-federalist - 05:

Scotland and England -- A Case in Point

Anti-federalist - 06:

The Hobgoblins of Anarchy And Dissensions Among The States

Anti-federalist - 07:

Adoption of The Constitution Will Lead to Civil War

Anti-federalist - 08:

The Power Vested in Congress of Sending Troops For Suppressing Insurrections.  Will Always Enable Them to Stifle The First Struggles of Freedom

Anti-federalist - 09:

A Consolidated Government Is a Tyranny

Anti-federalist - 10:

On The Preservation of Parties, Public Liberty Depends

Anti-federalist - 11:

Unrestricted Power Over Commerce Should Not Be Given The National Government.

Anti-federalist - 12:

How Will The New Government Raise Money?

Anti-federalist - 13:

The Expense of The New Government

Anti-federalist - 14:

Extent of Territory Under Consolidated Government Too Large to Preserve Liberty or Protect Property

Anti-federalist - 15:

Rhode Island Is Right!

Anti-federalist - 16:

Europeans Admire And Federalists Decry The Present System

Anti-federalist - 17:

Federalist Power Will Ultimately Subvert State Authority

Anti-federalist - 18-20:

What Does History Teach? (Part I)
What Does History Teach? (Part II)

Anti-federalist - 21:

Why The Articles Failed

Anti-federalist - 22:

Articles of Confederation Simply Requires Amendments, Particularly For Commercial Power And Judicial Power; Constitution Goes Too Far

Anti-federalist - 23:

Certain Powers Necessary For The Common Defense, Can And Should Be Limited

Anti-federalist - 24:

Objections to a Standing Army (Part I)

Anti-federalist - 25:

Objections to a Standing Army (Part II)

Anti-federalist - 26:

The Use of Coercion by The New Government (Part I)

Anti-federalist - 27:

The Use of Coercion by The New Government (Part II)

Anti-federalist - 28:

The Use of Coercion by The New Government (Part III)

Anti-federalist - 29:

Objections to National Control of the Militia

Anti-federalist - 30-31:

A Virginia Anti-federalist on the Issue of Taxation

Anti-federalist - 32:

Federal Taxation and the Doctrine of Implied Powers (Part I)

Anti-federalist - 33:

Federal Taxation and the Doctrine of Implied Powers (Part II)

Anti-federalist - 34:

The Problem of Concurrent Taxation

Anti-federalist - 35:

Federal Taxing Power must Be Restrained

Anti-federalist - 36:

Representation and Internal Taxation

Anti-federalist - 37:

Factions and the Constitution

Anti-federalist - 38:

Some Reactions to Federalist Arguments

Anti-federalist - 39:

Appearance and Reality -- the Form Is Federal; the Effect Is National

Anti-federalist - 40:

On the Motivations and Authority of the Founding Fathers

Anti-federalist - 41-43:

The Quantity of Power The Union Must Possess Is One Thing; The Mode of Exercising The Powers Given Is Quite a Different Consideration (Part I)

Anti-federalist - 41-43:

The Quantity of Power the Union must Possess Is One Thing; the Mode of Exercising the Powers Given Is Quite a Different Consideration (Part II)

Anti-federalist - 44:

What Congress Can Do; What a State Can Not

Anti-federalist - 45:

Powers of National Government Dangerous to State Governments; New York as an Example

Anti-federalist - 46:

Where Then Is the Restraint?

Anti-federalist - 47:

"Balance" of Departments Not Achieved under New Constitution

Anti-federalist - 48:

No Separation of Departments Results in No Responsibility

Anti-federalist - 49:

On Constitutional Conventions (Part I)

Anti-federalist - 50:

On Constitutional Conventions (Part II)

Anti-federalist - 51:

Do Checks and Balances Really Secure the Rights of the People?

Anti-federalist - 52:

On the Guarantee of Congressional Biennial Elections

Anti-federalist - 53:

A Plea for the Right of Recall

Anti-federalist - 54:

Apportionment And Slavery: Northern And Southern Views

Anti-federalist - 55:

Will the House of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part I)

Anti-federalist - 56:

Will the House of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part II)

Anti-federalist - 57:

Will the House of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part III)

Anti-federalist - 58:

Will the House of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part IV)

Anti-federalist - 59:

The Danger of Congressional Control of Elections

Anti-federalist - 60:

Will the Constitution Promote the Interests of Favorite Classes?

Anti-federalist - 61:

Questions and Comments on the Constitutional Provisions, Regarding the Election of Congressmen

Anti-federalist - 62:

On the Organization and Powers of the Senate (Part I)

Anti-federalist - 63:

On the Organization and Powers of the Senate (Part II)

Anti-federalist - 64:

On the Organization and Powers of the Senate (Part III)

Anti-federalist - 65:

On the Organization and Powers of the Senate (Part IV)

Anti-federalist - 66:

On The Power of Impeachment

Anti-federalist - 67:

Various Fears Concerning the Executive Department

Anti-federalist - 68:

On the Mode of Electing the President

Anti-federalist - 69:

The Character of the Executive Office

Anti-federalist - 70:

The Powers and Dangerous Potentials of His Elected Majesty

Anti-federalist - 71:

The Presidential Term of Office

Anti-federalist - 72:

On The Electoral College; on Re-eligibility of the President

Anti-federalist - 73:

Does the Presidential Veto Power Infringe on the Separation of Departments?

Anti-federalist - 74:

The President as Military King

Anti-federalist - 75:

A Note Protesting the Treaty-making Provisions of the Constitution

Anti-federalist - 76-77:

An Anti-federalist View of the Appointing Power under the Constitution

Anti-federalist - 78-79:

The Power of the Judiciary (Part I)

Anti-federalist - 80:

The Power of the Judiciary (Part II)

Anti-federalist - 81:

The Power of the Judiciary (Part III)

Anti-federalist - 82:

The Power of the Judiciary (Part IV)

Anti-federalist - 83:

The Federal Judiciary and the Issue of Trial by Jury

Anti-federalist - 84:

On the Lack of a Bill of Rights

Anti-federalist - 85:

Concluding Remarks: Evils under Confederation Exaggerated; Constitution must Be Drastically Revised Before Adoption